A urinalysis is a scientific test of your urine produced by your body’s kidneys.
The kidney’s role is to filter the blood, removing waste, regulation of the water levels in the body, and the conservation of proteins, electrolytes, and other useful compounds.
By examining the composition of urine, we can get a better picture of how the body is performing, including essential organs such as the kidneys and liver. A convenient at-home 10 parameter urinalysis test strip is the best starting point as it gives you a wide understanding of 10 key health markers.
Each strip has 10 different reagent test pads that change colour as a reaction to the chemical characteristics of the urine. These reactions can provide signs of general health as well as to detect a broad spectrum of abnormalities. These initial strip tests are commonly used by medical professionals use to assist in first stages of diagnosis.
Using the at-home testing strips, you can avoid the wait at the doctor’s clinic and if the test show signs of reactions then use that information to discuss with your medical practitioner, saving you time and money!
What do the urine strips test?
- Specific Gravity
Urinalysis can assist in the initial diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic or systemic diseases that have gone unnoticed because of a lack of defined symptoms.
Interpretation of Results
Glucose is not normally found in urine to significant levels; however, when it is the condition is called glucosuria. Often this happens if there is an abnormally high level of glucose present in the person’s blood. Normal glucose levels in urine range from 0 to 0.8 mmol/l (0 to 15 mg/dL). Higher values can occur with diabetes, pregnancy, or renal glycosuria.
Urine specific gravity is the measure of the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine.
Healthy individuals usually have urine specific gravity from 1.003 to 1.030. Reduced specific gravity can indicate possible diabetes and other renal disorders. Elevated levels can indicate possible liver disease or congestive heart failure. Higher concentration levels often is a result of not drinking sufficient fluids.
Blood in the urine can be an indicator for further investigation; however, not always a sign of a condition or illness. Blood detected in the urine may be a sign of kidney infection, kidney damage, stones in the kidney or bladder, kidney or bladder cancer.
Bilirubin is a fluid produced by the liver and found in bile and not usually found in the urine of healthy individuals. Increased bilirubin levels can indicate certain forms of liver disease such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, gallstone, biliary tract disease, and can be an early indicator of jaundice. Trace levels of bilirubin detected should warrant further investigation.
A test of Urine pH measures the level of acid in urine. A healthy individual will have urine that has a pH value ranging from 5 to 8.
A high urine pH (>8) may be due to the kidneys not remove acids, or an indicator of kidney failure or urinary tract infection. A low pH may be due to diabetic ketoacidosis or diarrhoea. It is a useful indicator of kidney, gastrointestinal, respiratory and metabolic health.
Nitrates are a normal part of the composition of urine. If bacteria enter the urinary tract, nitrates can turn into nitrites and be an indicator of a urinary tract infection (UTI). To confirm further the detection of a UTI, the presence of Leukocyte is also taken into account. A UTI can be present despite a negative Nitrite test.
Leukocytes are white blood cells (WBCs) and part of the immune system. These cells are normal in small numbers in urine; however, when the level increases significantly screening results will be positive. Presence of leukocytes in a sample of >10 leu/?L can be an indicator of infections.
Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel or when you lose weight. They are also produced when there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Increased ketone levels can be a sign of insufficient insulin and can be a sign of diabetes, digestive disorders, pregnancy and febrile states. Those following a Ketone diet can use a urine test to detecting ketones to determine the metabolic state called ketosis.
Protein is found in the blood; however, if there are issues with the kidneys, protein can sometimes be found in urine. When urine protein is elevated, a person has a condition called proteinuria and can be signs of kidney disease.
Urobilinogen is formed from the production of bilirubin, a substance found in the liver that helps break down red blood cells. Normal urine contains up to 1.0 mg/dL of Urobilinogen. Low levels or none can be an indicator the liver isn’t working correctly. High levels of urobilinogen (> 2 mg/dL may indicate liver diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis.
Urine analysis at home
A simple kit of 5 strips can be used regularly to ensure your overall health and wellness and provide you with the early warning signals of various health conditions. At a small investment, this test can remove the need for an initial medical consultation and be used to guide a practitioner if an anomalous reading is found.